The delay-tolerant controllers we developed are applied to counter fatigue-induced actuation delays in neuromuscular electrical stimulation-based feedback control of the knee joint. A Switched systems based approach to closed-loop neuromuscular electrical stimulation-based control of the ankle joint is also explored. Recently, we have also started work on potential uses of neuromuscular electrical stimulation to decrease co-contractions in the knee joint and Osteoarthritis related pain.


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